What is TPM?
The overall objective of TPM is "Enhance the volume of the production, employee morals, and job satisfaction”.
The goal of TPM is the continuous improvement of equipment effectiveness through engaging those that impact on it in small group improvement activities.
Total quality management (TQM) and total productive maintenance (TPM) are considered as the key operational activities of the quality management system. In order for TPM to be effective, the full support of the total workforce is required.
The main objective of TPM is to increase the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) of plant equipment. TPM addresses the causes for accelerated deterioration while creating the correct environment between operators and equipment to create ownership.
OEE has three factors which are multiplied to give one measure called OEE
Performance x Availability x Quality = OEE
Each factor has two associated losses making 6 in total, these 6 losses are as follows:
Performance = (1) running at reduced speed – (2) Minor Stops
Availability = (3) Breakdowns – (4) Product changeover
Quality = (5) Startup rejects – (6) Running rejects
The objective finally is to identify then prioritize and eliminate the causes of the losses. This is done by self-managing teams that solve problem. Employing consultants to create this culture is a common practice.
The philosophy of TPM
TPM is a maintenance philosophy aimed at eliminating production losses due to equipment status, or in other words, keeping equipment in a position to produce at maximum capacity, the expected quality products, with no unscheduled stops. This includes:
- Zero breakdowns
- Zero downtimes
- Zero failures attributed to poor condition of equipment
- No loss of efficiency or production capacity due to this equipment
It is understood perfectly the name: total productive maintenance, or maintenance that provides maximum or total productivity.
Principles of TPM
The eight pillars of TPM are mostly focused on proactive and preventive techniques for improving equipment reliability:
Education and Training
Administrative & office TPM
Safety Health Environmental conditions
With the help of these pillars, we can increase productivity. Manufacturing support
Implementation of TPM
The Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance (JIPM) developed a seven-step method aimed at achieving a change in attitude, which is essential to the success of the programme. The steps to develop this change of attitude are:
Phase 1. Initial Cleaning
In this phase, It is tried to clean the machine from dust and dirt, to leave all parts clearly visible. It is also implemented a lubrication programme, the machine components are fitted and an equipment commission is performed (all known failures are repaired)
Phase 2. Discover the causes of dirt, dust and faults
After cleaning the machine it must not get dirty again and fall into the same state. Causes of dirt, dust and irregular operation must be avoided (oil leaks, for example), access to clean and lubricate difficult places must be improved and to reduce the time needed for these two basic functions (clean and lubricate) is sought.
Phase 3. Establishment of procedures for cleaning and lubrication
In this phase appear again two primary maintenance functions or first level functions, assigned to the production staff: at this stage are prepared standard procedures in order that the activities of cleaning, lubrication and minor adjustments of the components can be done in short time
Phase 4. General inspections
Once you get that staff be responsible for cleaning, lubrication and minor adjustments, you should train the production personnel so that they can inspect and check the equipment for minor failures and failures in gestation process, and of course, solve them.
Phase 5. Autonomous inspection
In this fifth phase, the ranges of autonomous maintenance or operation maintenance are prepared. In this phase checklists of the machines are prepared by the operators themselves, and then they are put into practice. This is the stage where there is real implementation of periodic preventive maintenance performed by the personnel operating the machine.
Phase 6. Order and Harmony in the distribution
Activities standardization and procedurisation is one of the essences of Total Quality Management (TQM), which is the philosophy behind both the TPM and the JIT. This establishes procedures and standards for cleaning, inspection, lubrication, maintenance of records which reflect all maintenance and production activities, management of tools and spare parts, etc.
Phase 7. Optimization and autonomy in the activity
The last phase aims to develop a culture of continuous improvement across the company: It registers systematically the time between failures, analyzes them and proposes solutions. All this is promoted and led by the production team.
The time required to complete the programme varies from 2 to 3 years, and usually is developed as follows:
Management announces to all the company the decision to implement TPM. The program's success depends on the emphasis put by the General Manager in his announcement to all staff.
It makes a massive campaign of information and training to all levels of the company so that everyone understands clearly the concepts of TPM. All possible means are used, such as lectures, posters, bulletin boards, etc.., So a favourable atmosphere is created to start the program.
Organizations to promote TPM are set up, such as a Management Committee, Departmental Committees and Task Groups to discuss each topic.
Basic policies and goals that will state in the TPM programme are defined and issued. To this objective a survey is conducted for all company operations to measure the real effectiveness of the operation team and know the situation with regard to the "6 great losses". In conclusion, goals are set and a programme to fulfil them is proposed.
A master plan for TPM development is defined, which results in a programme of all activities and stages.